Adey, W.H., Hernandez-Kantun, J.J., Johnson, G. & Gabrielson, P.W. 2015. DNA sequencing, anatomy, and calcification patterns support a monophyletic, subarctic, carbonate reef-forming Clathromorphum (Hapalidiaceae, Corallinales, Rhodophyta). J. Phycol. 51: 189-203.

Bárbara, I., Gallardo, T., Cremades, J., Barreiro, R., Maneiro, I. & Saunders, G.W. 2013. Pseudopolyides furcellatus (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from the Iberian Peninsula, a new erect member of the Cruoriaceae based on morphological and molecular evidence. Phycologia 52: 191-203.

Barros-Barreto, M.B., Jaramillo, M.A., Hommersand, M.H., Ferreira, P.C.G. & Maggs, C.A. 2023. Phylogenetic analysis of the red algal tribe Ceramieae reveals multiple morphological homoplasies but defines new genera. Cryptogamie, Algologie 44 (2): 13-58. 

Bird, C.J. & McLachlan, J.L. 1992. Seaweed flora of the Maritimes. 1. Rhodophyta – the red algae. Biopress Ltd., Bristol. pp. i-v, 1-177.

Boo, S.M. & Lee, I.K. 1983. A life history and hybridization of Antithamnion sparsum Tokida (Rhodophyta, Ceramiaceae) in culture. Korean Journal of Phycology 26(3):141-150.

Bringloe et al. 2021. Whole-genome sequencing reveals forgotten lineages and recurrent hybridizations within the kelp genus Alaria (Phaeophyceae). J. Phycol. 57(6): 1721-1738.

Bringloe, T.T. & Saunders, G.W. 2018. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data reveal the origins of postglacial marine macroalgal flora in the Northwest Atlantic. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 589: 45-58.

Bringloe, T.T. & Saunders, G.W. 2019a. DNA barcoding of the marine macroalgae from Nome, Alaska (Northern Bering Sea) reveals many trans-Arctic species. Polar Biol. 42(5): 851-864.

Bringloe, T.T., Sjøtun, K. & Saunders, G.W. 2019b. A DNA barcode survey of marine macroalgae from Bergen (Norway). Mar. Biol. Res. 15(10): 580-589.

Brodie, J.A. & Irvine, L.M. 2003. Seaweeds of the British Isles, vol. 1, Rhodophyta, part 3B, Bangiophycidae. NHM, London.

Brodie, J.A., Maggs, C.A. & John, D.M. 2007. Green seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. British Phycological Society, London.

Brooks, C.M. & Krumhansl, K. 2023. First record of Antithamnion sparsum (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta), in Nova Scotia, Canada. BioInvasion Records in press.

Bruce, M. & Saunders, G.W. in prep. Investigating species diversity, biogeography and taxonomy within the red algal genera Antithamnionella, Hollenbergia and Scagelia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in Canada. in prep.

Burrows, E.M. 1991. Seaweeds of the British Isles, vol. 2, Chlorophyta. NHM, London.

Clarkston, B.E. & Saunders, G.W. 2010. A comparison of two DNA barcode markers for species discrimination in the red algal family Kallymeniaceae (Gigartinales, Florideophyceae), with a description of Euthora timburtonii sp. nov. Botany 88: 119-131.

Díaz-Tapia, P., Pasellab, M.M., Verbruggen, H. & Maggs. C.A. 2019. Morphological evolution and classification of the red algal order Ceramiales inferred using plastid phylogenomics. Molecular Pphycogenetics & Evolution in press (

Evans, J.R. & Saunders, G.W. 2017. PCR fishing for red endophytes in British Columbia Kallymeniaceae (Gigartinales, Florideophyceae) uncovers the species-rich Kallymenicolagen. nov. (Palmariales, Nemaliophycidae). J. Phycol. 53(3): 577-588.

Farlow, W.G. 1881. Marine algae from New England and adjacent coast. Report of the U.S. Fish Commission for 1879, Government Printing Office, Washington, 209 pp., 15 pls.

Gabrielson, P.W. & Lindstrom, S.C. 2018. Keys to the seaweeds and seagrasses of southeast Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. Phycological contribution Number 9; Island Blue/Printorium Bookworks, Victoria, BC.

Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.; searched on 23 November 2020.

Hanic, L.A. 2005. Taxonomy, gamete morphology and mating types of Urospora (Ulotrichales, Chlorophyta) in North America. Phycologia 44(2): 183-193.

Hanic, L.A. & Lindstrom, S.C. 2008. Life history and systematic studies of Pseudothrix borealis gen. et sp. nov. (=North Pacific Capsosiphon groenlandicus, Ulotrichaceae, Chlorophyta). Algae 23: 119-133.

Harvey, W.H. 1851. Nereis boreali-americana; or, contributions to a history of the marine algae of North America. Part I. Melanospermeae. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge 3(4): 1-150, pls I-XII.

Harvey, W.H. 1853. Nereis boreali-americana. Part II. Rhodospermeae. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge 5 (5): 1–258, pls. XIII–XXXVI.

Hind, K.R. & Saunders, G.W. 2013. A molecular phylogenetic study of the tribe Corallineae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) with an assessment of genus-level taxonomic features and descriptions of novel genera. J. Phycol. 49:103-114.

Irvine, L.M. & Chamberlain, Y.M. 1994. Seaweeds of the British Isles, vol. 1, Rhodophyta, part 2B, Corallinales, Hildenbrandiales. HMSO/NHM, London.

Kucera, H. & Saunders, G.W. 2008. Assigning morphological variants of Fucus (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) in Canadian waters to recognized species using DNA barcoding. Botany 86: 1065-1079. Kucera, H. & Saunders, G.W. 2012. A survey of Bangiales (Rhodophyta) based on multiple molecular markers reveals cryptic diversity. J. Phycol. 48: 869-882.

Kucera, H. & Saunders, G.W. 2012. A survey of Bangiales (Rhodophyta) based on multiple molecular markers reveals cryptic diversity. J. Phycol. 48: 869-882.

Lane, C.E., Lindstrom, S. & Saunders, G.W. 2007. A molecular assessment of northeast Pacific Alaria species (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) with reference to the utility of DNA barcoding. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 44: 634-648.

Lane, C.E., Mayes, C., Druehl, L.D. & Saunders, G.W. 2006. A multi-gene molecular investigation of the kelp (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) supports substantial taxonomic re-organization. J. Phycol. 42: 493-512.

Lane, C.E& Saunders, G.W. 2005. Molecular investigation reveals epi/endophytic extrageneric kelp (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) gametophytes colonizing Lessoniopsis littoralis thalli. Bot. Mar. 48: 426-436.

Lee, R.K.S. 1980. A catalogue of the marine algae of the Canadian Arctic. Natl. Mus. Can. Nat. Sci. Publ. Bot. 9: 1-83.

Le Gall, L. & Saunders, G.W. 2010a. DNA barcoding is a powerful tool to uncover algal diversity: a case study of the Phyllophoraceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) in the Canadian flora. J. Phycol. 46: 374-389.

Le Gall, L. & Saunders G.W. 2010b. Establishment of a DNA-barcode library for the Nemaliales (Rhodophyta) from Canada and France uncovers overlooked diversity in the species Nemalion helminthoides(Velley) Batters. Cryptogamie Algol. 31: 403-421.

Lokhorst, G.M. & Trask, B.J. 1981. Taxonomic studies on Urospora (Acrosiphoniales, Chlorophyceae) in western Europe. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 30(5/6): 353-431.

Longtin, C. & Saunders, G.W. 2015. On the utility of mucilage ducts as a taxonomic character in Laminaria and Saccharina (Phaeophyceae) – the conundrum of S. groenlandica. Phycologia 54(5): 440-450. Longtin, C. & Saunders, G.W. 2016. The relative contribution of Saccharina nigripes ( Phaeophyceae) to the Bay of Fundy Laminariaceae: spatial and temporal variability. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 543: 153-162.

Maggs, C.A. & Hommersand, M.H. 1993. Seaweeds of the British Isles, vol. 1, Rhodophyta, part 3A, Ceramiales. HMSO/NHM, London.

Masuda, M. 1976. Taxonomic notes on Rhodophysemopsis gen. nov. Rhodophyta. Journ. Jap. Bot. 51: 175-187.

Matieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. 2017. Seaweeds of the northwest Atlantic. University of Massachusetts Press, Boston. pp. 1-x, 1-798.

McDevit, D.C.  & Saunders, G.W. 2010. A DNA barcode examination of the Laminariaceae (Phaeophyceae) in Canada reveals novel biogeographical and evolutionary insights. Phycologia 49: 235-248.

McDevit, D.C. & Saunders, G.W. 2017. A molecular investigation of Canadian Scytosiphonaceae (Phaeophyceae) including descriptions of Planosiphon gen. nov. and Scytosiphon promiscuus sp. nov. Botany 95: 653-671.

Pedersen, P.M. 2011. Grønlands havalger., Frederiksberg, pp. [1] 7-208.

Pröschold, T. & Darienko, T. 2020. The green puzzle Stichococcus (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta): new generic and species concept among this widely distributed genus. Phytotaxa 441(2): 113-142.

Rindi, F., McIvor, L. & Guiry, M.D. 2004. The Prasiolales (Chlorophyta) of Atlantic Europe: an assessment based on morphological, molecular, and ecological data, including the characterization of Rosenvingiella radicans (Kützing) comb. nov. Journal of Phycology 40: 977-997.

Saunders, G.W. 2009. Routine DNA barcoding of Canadian Gracilariales (Rhodophyta) reveals the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophyllain British Columbia. Molec. Ecol. Res.9 (Suppl. 1): 140-150.

Saunders, G.W. 2014. Long distance kelp rafting impacts seaweed biogeography in the Northeast Pacific: the kelp conveyor hypothesis. J. Phycol. 50: 968-974 (

Saunders, G.W. 2020. Torngatum varicrassum gen. et sp. nov. expands taxonomic breadth for both the Meiodiscaceae (Palmariales, Rhodophyta) and the red algal flora in the Canadian Arctic. Notulae Algarum No. 132: 1-4 (ISSN 2009-8987).

Saunders, G.W. 2023. NEAS Keys to the Benthic Marine Algae of the Northwest Atlantic and Canadian Arctic from Long Island Sound to Cambridge Bay, 3rd Revision, with the Description of Eight New Species.  i-iv, 1-84 pp. Published by the Northeast Algal Society, in review.

Saunders, G.W. & Bird, C.J. 1989. Considerations of life history, morphology and taxonomy in Rhodophysema georgii Batters (Rhodophyta, Palmariales). Br. Phycol. J. 24: 63-71.

Saunders, G.W. & Brooks, C.M. 2023. Metabarcoding extends the distribution of Porphyra corallicola (Bangiales) into the Arctic while revealing novel species and patterns for Conchocelis stages in the Canadian flora. Diversity 15, 677: 1-11. d15050677 (invited contribution, special issue Marine Nearshore Biodiversity).

Saunders, G.W., Brooks, C.M. & Scott, S. 2019. Preliminary DNA barcode report on the marine red algae (Rhodophyta) from the British Overseas Territory of Tristan da Cunha. Cryptogamie Algol. 40(10): 105-117.

Saunders, G.W. & Druehl, L.D. 1993. Revision of the kelp family Alariaceae and the taxonomic affinities of LessoniopsisReinke (Laminariales, Phaeophyta). Hydrobiologia 260/261: 689-697.

Saunders, G.W., Hawkins, N. & Wilkin S. 2013. A survey of Sam Orr’s Pond (New Brunswick, Canada) uncovers the invasive green alga Codium fragile (Chlorophyta) and the orange-striped green anemone Diadumene lineata (Cnidaria), first records for the Bay of Fundy and Canada, respectively. BioInvasions Records 2: 185-189.

Saunders, G.W., Jackson, C. & Salomaki, E.D. 2018. Phylogenetic analyses of transcriptome data resolve familial assignments for genera of the red algal Acrochaetiales-Palmariales complex (Nemaliophycidae). Molec. Phylo. Evol. 119: 151-159 (

Saunders, G.W. & Kucera, H. 2010. An evaluation of rbcL, tufA, UPA, LSU and ITS as DNA barcode markers for the marine green macroalgae. Cryptogamie Algol. 31: 487-528.

Saunders, G.W. & McDevit, D.C. 2013. DNA barcoding unmasks overlooked diversity improving knowledge on the composition and origins of the Churchill algal flora. BMC Ecology 13: 9 (doi:10.1186/1472-6785-13-9).

Saunders, G.W. & McDevit, D.C. 2014. A DNA barcode survey of Haida Gwaii kelp (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) reveals novel ecological and distributional observations and Saccharina druehlii sp. nov. Botany 92: 821-826.

Saunders, G.W. & Withall, R.D. 2006. Collections of the invasive species Grateloupia turuturu(Halymeniales, Rhodophyta) from Tasmania, Australia. Phycologia 45: 711-714.

Savoie, A.M. & Saunders, G.W. 2015. Evidence for the introduction of the Asian red alga Neosiphonia japonica and its introgression with Neosiphonia harveyi (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Northwest Atlantic. Mol. Ecol. 24(23): 5927-5937.

Savoie, A. & Saunders, G.W. 2019. A molecular assessment of species diversity and evolutionary relationships of the red algal tribe Polysiphonieae (Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales) in Canada. Eur. J. Phycol. 54(1): 1-25.

Scagel, R.F. 1966. Marine Algae of British Columbia and Northern Washington, Part 1: Chlrophyceae (Green algae). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 207. National Museum, Ottawa. viii + 257 pp.

Schneider, C.W. & Searles, R.B. 1991. Seaweeds of the Southeastern United States. Cape Hatteras to Cape Canaveral. Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina. 554 pp.

Schneider, C.W., Suyemoto, M.M. & Yarish, C. 1979. An annotated checklist of Connecticut seaweeds. Bulletin of the Connecticut State Geological and Natural History Survey 108: 1-20.

Schneider, C.W., Wynne, M.J. & Saunders, G.W. 2021. On the nomenclatural reinstatement and lectotypification of Spyridia americana Durant (1850). Bot. Mar. In press

Sears, J.R. 2002. NEAS Keys to benthic marine algae of the northeastern coast of North America from Long Island Sound to the Strait of Belle Isle. Northeast Algal Society Contr. No. 2. Univ. Mass. Dartmouth Campus Book Store, Dartmouth, Mass. xvii + 161 pp.

Setchell, W.A. & Gardner, N.L. 1925. The marine algae of the Pacific coast of North America. Part III. Melanophyceae. University of California Publications in Botany 8: 383-898, pls 34-107.

South, G.R., Hooper, R.G. & Irvine, L.M. 1972. The life history of Turnerella pennyi (Harv.) Schmitz. Br. Phycol. J. 7: 221-233.

Starko, S., Boo, G.H., Martone, P.T. & Lindstrom, S.C. 2018. A molecular investigation of Saccharina sessilis from the Aleutian Islands reveals a species complex, necessitating the new combination Saccharina subsessilisAlgae 33(2): 157-166. 

Taylor, W R. 1962. Marine algae of the northeastern coast of North America. 2nd ed. Second printing with corrections. Univ. Mich. Press, Ann Arbor. viii + [i] + 509 pp.

Vinogradova, K.L. 1974. Ulvovye vodorosli (Chlorophyta) morei SSSR [Ulvaceous algae (Chlorophyta) of the seas of the USSR]. pp. 1-165. Leningrad; Nauka.

Whittick, A. & West, J.A. 1979. The life history of a monoecious species of Callithamnion (Rhodophyta, Ceramiaceae) in culture. Phycologia 18(1): 30-37.

Womersley, H.B.S. 1998. The marine benthic flora of southern Australia – Part IIIC. Ceramiales – Ceramiaceae, Dasyaceae. State Herbarium of South Australia, Adelaide. 535 pp.

Wynne, M.J. 1997. Taxonomic and nomenclatrual notes on the Delesseriaceae (Rhodophyta). Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 21: 319-334.

Wynne, M.J. & Saunders, G.W. 2012. Taxonomic assessment of North American species of the genera Cumathamnion, Delesseria, Membranoptera and Pantoneura (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) using molecular data. Algae 27: 155-173.

Yang, E.C., Peters, A.F., Kawai, H., Stern, R., Hanyuda, T., Bárbara, I., Müller, D.G., Strittmatter, M., Prud’homme van Reine, W.F. & Küpper, F.C. 2014. Ligulate Desmarestia (Desmarestiales, Phaeophyceae) revisited: D. japonica sp. nov. and D. dudresnayi differ from D. ligulataJ. Phycol. 50(1): 149-166.

Yang, L.E., Deng, Y.Y., Xu, G.P., Russell, S., Lu, Q.Q. & Brodie, J. 2020. Redefining Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta): four new genera, resurrection of Porphyrella and description of Calidia pseudolobata sp. nov. from China. J. Phycol. 56(4): 862-879.